Redesigning Civilization – with Permaculture
by Toby Hemenway (2013)
Toby Hemenway defines permaculture as a branch of ecological design that employs natural ecosystems as a model. Although most permaculture design relates to food production, its principles can be applied to the management of all human needs, including water, shelter, waste, energy, finance, culture/spirituality and even sports and security.
Permaculture-based food production focuses on returning to a “horticultural” method of food production with “food forests” and other self-maintained food systems, as opposed to our current mechanized, open field method of food production. Permaculture relies on ecologically designed gardens, rather than open fields, and mixed crops, rather than monoculture. It also employs the continuous plant succession typical of natural ecosystems, rather than starting with a clear cut every year.
For me, the most interesting part of the film is Hemenway’s discussion of archeological evidence that civilization preceded the Agricultural Revolution (around 10,000 BC). This contradicts the prevailing belief that the agricultural made civilization possible by creating a food surplus. It’s been argued for more than a century that the creation of a food surplus through open field agriculture freed up non-farmers to specialize in higher pursuits, such as art, science, music, religion, and literature.
According to Hemenway, more recent archeological evidence suggests that civilization came first. This includes Venus figurines which dating from 40,000 years ago, religious symbols from 30,000 years ago, evidence of horticulture (plant tending) 30,000 years ago and evidence of irrigation 20,000 years ago.
He makes reference to an archeological site in Gokikli Tepi Turkey from 14,000 years ago suggestive of routine spiritual gatherings of hundreds of people. Feeding large crowds poses a specific technological challenge.
Hemenway believes these large gatherings may have been the impetus for large scale open field cultivation. “Agriculture” (from “ager” meaning field) made it possible to produce large amounts of grain which, unlike other foods, can be stored for long periods.
Hemenway goes on to discuss some of the immediate drawbacks of grain-based agriculture (based again on archeological evidence):
- Overpopulation, famine, and warfare – agriculture immediately caused a population boom, as grains are the one of the easiest foods to convert to calories. They increase female fertility, as well as allowing for early weaning (breast feeding inhibits ovulation). This population boom made settlements more susceptible both to conquest from neighboring tribes and famine due to failed harvests.
- Shorter life span and poorer health – following the introduction of agriculture, people tended to be shorter, suffer from more degenerative disease, and have shorter life spans (by about 20-30%). They also became subject to deadly viral epidemics (such as small pox) transmitted from domesticated animals.
- Less leisure time – following the introduction of agriculture, people had to work 60+ hour weeks just to survive. This was in part due to the need to support a priesthood, nobility, and military to protect the grain surplus. A hunter gatherer can generally collect sufficient food in four hours to last him a week.
- Agriculture created a fear of nature (of insects, weeds, wilderness, wild animals, and wild people) and a mindset in which people came to see themselves as separate, rather than part of nature.
Hemenway goes on to outline the basic permaculture design principles, with specific examples of their application to all aspects of sustainable living:
- Catching, storing, and reusing energy and materials, essentially eliminating the concept of waste.
- Becoming pattern literate – learning to observe ecosystems to see how a small change can have a big effect.
- Focusing on community and regional self-reliance rather than individual self-sufficiency.
Drawing on real-life examples, the film finishes with recommendations of what viewers can do to facilitate the transition to a “permaculture” lifestyle in their own communities.
Originally published in Dissident Voice
Reblogged this on World Organic News.
Thank you for posting information about permaculture, Stuart, and for sharing this fascinating video. It’s such a valuable foundation for critically assessing how to redesign communities, and it’s something I plan to share with students.
Thanks, Carol. We have a very strong permaculture community here in New Plymouth. Thus it happens to be a very special interest of mine.
I just wanted to let you know that I posted a link to your blog for my students, Stuart. The Information and video resources you posted provide a crucial historical and theoretical overview of permaculture, as well as solutions. I hope my students will seriously consider permaculture as a foundation for their future professional work with individuals, communities, and policy advocacy. I plan to learn more about this topic as the semester progresses and will build it into the social justice lab I will be teaching in the fall, and the policy and community hybrid class I hope to co-teach next spring. I welcome any additional resource ideas you can suggest.
Here’s a link to some free permaculture instructional videos by Australian permaculture guru Geoff Lawton: http://www.geofflawton.com/sq/38936-food-forests
He’s quite popular here in New Zealand. When you click on the link, it asks you to enter your email address. Then it takes you to a page where you can watch the current video or go to links to past videos. I have to admit my favorite is where he builds a food forest in in the desert in Jordan. Jordan, Egypt, Iraq – many of these modern deserts were all lush forests and plains before prehistoric civilizations caused the soil to become excessively saline by over-irrigation.
He also has some great permaculture tours in the US, including Davis, New York City and cold climate permaculture sites in new England.
Looks like a great film. On the watch list for tomorrow night. Essential viewing, and a well written review. This should be particularly interesting as my little family is about to embark on our own permaculture experience in Australia. Will be posting on this in the future. 🙂
Hopefully you won’t be disappointed.
Reblogged this on thepoliticalvagina and commented:
Extremely interesting take on permaculture….food for thought 😉
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